Chapter Six

Data analysis concepts and observational methods

Data files supplied for Chapter 6 exercises:

  • HOT_bottle_nutrient_data.joa
  • P16_2005_2006_clean_bottle.joa
  • WOA05_NorthAtlantic_square.joa
  • WOA09_P16.joa
Download: Chapter 6 Data Files


  • Gain familiarity with useful oceanographic analysis and presentation tools
  • Learn more about oceanographic features

JOA Note:

  • JOA's tool set is described more comprehensively in the JOA User Guide

DPO Chapter 6 Sections:

DPO JOA examples are available for the following highlighted sections:
6.1 Oceanographic sampling
6.2 Observational error
6.3 Basic statistical concepts
6.3.1 Mean, variance, standard deviation and standard error
6.3.2 Probability density function
6.3.3 Covariance, auto-covariance, integral time scale, degrees of freedom and confidence intervals
6.3.4 Least squares analysis
6.4 Variation in space: profiles, vertical sections and horizontal maps
6.4.1 Variation in the vertical direction Sampling Vertical profiles Vertical sections
6.4.2 Variation in the horizontal direction
6.5 Variation in time
6.5.1 Time series data display
6.5.2 Velocity (vector) data time-series analysis
6.5.3 Spectral analysis
6.5.4 Filtering data
6.6 Multi-dimensional sampling
6.6.1 Multi-dimensional time series data and empirical orthogonal functions
6.6.2 Climatologies and atlases
6.7 Water property (water mass) analyses
6.7.1 Analysis using two characteristics, e.g. (–S, S–O2
6.7.2 Volumetric (-S characteristics of ocean waters
6.7.3 Optimum multiparameter analysis (OMP)
6.8 Glossary
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